glossary

Terms

A

Anophthalmia: absence of eye(s)
Anopia: congenital absence of eye(s)
Anterior chamber: front-most portion of the eye containing all structures bathed in aqueous humor: cornea, iris and limbus, lens, ciliary bodies
Anterior: toward the front
Aqueous humor: watery fluid secreted from the ciliary bodies and ciliary processes that acts like the blood for the anterior chamber structures and cornea. Exits the eye through the limbus to enter the venous bloodstream.
Augmentation: adding-to, usu in volume

B

Bilateral: both sides
Biopsy: any removal of tissue for diagnostic evaluation
Blepharoptosis: drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.
Blowout fracture: an explosive event producing an out-fracture of thin orbital bone in any direction, can entrap EOMs and affect motility
Bulbar: associated with the eyeball
Button: any disc-like structure, esp the iris of a prosthesis

C

Canthal tendon: any tendon of the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle inserting into bone
Canthus: either corner of the palpebral fissure; medial c.: nasal corner; lateral c.: temporal corner of the eyelids
Caruncle: a specialized extension of the conjunctival mucosa at the nasal canthus; adjacent fold of mucosa is the plica semilunaris
Cast: hardening a positive copy in a mold
Central retinal artery: the artery entering the eye with the optic nerve to supply the anterior layers of the retina
Choroid: layer of blood vessels feeding the posterior retina.
Collarette: ring in the colored iris usually about halfway from the pupil, representing the widest dilation of the sphincter
Coloboma: a cleft, usu in the iris or retina
Conformer: a smooth spacing element inserted at surgery to support the eyelids and retain socket dimensions while healing
Congenital: anything present at or from birth
Conjunctiva: mucous membrane that protects the eye (bulbar c.) and lids (palpebral c.); in an anophthalmic socket, this membrane lines the socket and covers the implant.
Conjunctiva: c. sac, c. fornices, c. fornix, c. glands, c. space, c.
Cornea: clear outer part of the anterior eye, main focusing lens
Cranial nerve: any of the ten nerves most central to the brain; in the orbit, these are II (optic), III(oculomotor): supplies the medial, superior, inferior, an inferior oblique muscles; IV(abducens): supplies superior oblique; V1 (orbital trigeminal): frontal and inferior orbital sensory nerves ; VI(lacrimal): supplies the lateral rectus muscle; remembered as LR6SO4, all the rest III
-cretion: anything leaving a gland; secretion, excretion, concretion
Cryo-: freezing element; c-therapy: freezing treatment for tumor(s); c-probe: freezing wand used to handle water-containing structures to be removed.
CT (or CAT) scan: uses x-ray to show the body in sections. Coronal CTs containing the eyes and brain are viewed nose-up, from below
Cul-de-sac: any tissue pocket with only one exit

D

Delamination: separation of layers in the prosthesis, usu at the edges or limbus
Disc Diameter: horizontal measure of the optic nerve head (± 1-1.5 mm), used to measure distances in the fundus

E

Ectropion: outward turning of the eyelashes
Edema: swelling, retention of fluid from the lymphatic system
Endothelium: any tissue lining the inside of a cavity in the body
Enophthalmos: inward malposition of the globe or orbital tissues due to a lack of volume, see superior sulcus
Entropion: inward turning of the eyelashes
Enucleation: surgical removal of the eye.
Episclera: a thin layer of loose connective tissue nearest the sclera
Epithelium: tissue coving the outside of the body; epithelialized: healing resulting in a keratinized covering of an otherwise endothelial area
Equator: the portion of the eye most distant from either pole
Evisceration: surgical removal of the eye contents only, leaving the sclera and muscle insertions intact
Exeneration: surgical removal of all tissue in the orbit
Exopthalmos: forward malposition of orbital elements, bulging eyes
Extraocular muscles (EOMs): any muscle moving the eye
Extrusion: portion of an implant exposed through a covering layer
Exudate: any substance excreted in reaction to stimulus or irritation
Eyelid retractors: fascial extensions from the inferior rectus containing the lower lid Müller’s muscle
Eyelid: skin-covered structure that protects the front of the eye.

F

Fascia: any layer-like structure, usually tough and encircling another
Fit: the ability of the prosthesis to closely conform to the exact socket, usu by casting with the aid of an impression
Fornix: the outermost extension of a pocket or socket, esp the farthest reaches of the conjunctival sac
Fovea: center of the macula, one degree of the sharpest vision
Fundus: the posterior of the eye as seen through an ophthalmoscope; f. drawing: map of the eye drawn by the ophthalmologist

G

Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC): cobblestone-like conjunctival inflammation due to irritation of the posterior eyelid surface
Glands: tissue that conduct (or excrete or secrete) specific substances or cells to aid another tissue; g. specific to the eye, usu contribute to the tearfilm by function or in exiting the eye: g.’s of Wolfring: small, tubuloalveolar glands in the subconjunctival tissue above the upper tarsal plate, ducts opening on the conjunctival surface. ; Waldeyer’s g.’s: acinotubular glands in the inner skin of the attached edge of the eyelid; g. of Moll: ciliary glands of conjunctiva; modified sweat glands that have become arrested in their development, situated next to the bulbs of the eyelashes; g. of Krause: accessory lacrimal glands situated deep in the subconjunctival connective tissue, mainly in the upper fornix; Lymphatic g.: secretes lymph, a watery, slightly yellowish fluid into the closed lymphatic system
Goblet cell: mucus-producing endothelial cell
GPC: giant papillary conjunctivitis
Grey line: demarcation of the anterior tarsus in the eyelid margin

H

Hydroxyapatite: implant material made of calcium from ocean coral

I

Implant: any sterile device or material inserted into the body
Impression: a cast, here, usually of the conjunctival socket
Inferior oblique
Inferior rectus
Inferior: toward the lower
Integrated implant: allows tissue to grow into the implant examples: Hydroxyapatite, highdensity polyethylene
Iris: (colored) diaphragm in the anterior chamber of the eye controlling the amount of light entering the retina
Lacrimal drainage system: canal system draining tears into the nose

L

Lacrimal glands: glands providing secondary, autonomic tears
Lamina Cribrosa: layer of sclera which allows exit of the optic nerve
Lamina papyricea
Lateral rectus
Lens: any non-flat optical element; the clear, laminated focusing element inside the eye
Leukocoria: white pupillary reflex, often representing retinoblastoma
Levator palpebrae superioris (muscle): raises the upper eyelid; L. Aponeurosis: sheet-like continuation of levator muscle that inserts into upper eyelid and tarsus
Lid laxity (horizontal): slackness of the canthal tendons, tarsus and eyelid, causing a droopy lid difficult to contain a prosthesis
Ligament: fibrous connection of bone to bone
Limbus: portion of the eye adjacent to the cornea, iris, and sclera
Lockwood’s ligament: fascial structure supporting the globe from below
Lymphatic tissue: part of the collection system of the lymph system; conjunctiva is especially rich in this tissue on the back of the tarsi and in the bulbar conj.
Lymphatic, lymph system: a circulation system besides the blood that carries away cellular waste and fluids outside and between the cells, placing this eventually into the venous blood system

M

Macula: central, most-sensitive area of retina, contains fovea
Magnet: any iron-containing material exhibiting magnetism
Medial: toward the mid-line of the body; rectus
Meibomian: oily, sebum-producing glands within the tarsus in each eyelid
Metastasis: spread of a cancer to other parts of the body
Microphthalmos: a small, congenitally tiny globe
Migration: movement from intended position
Moll glands: watery component of tears
Motility: movement, especially of the prosthesis
MR (or MRI) scan: uses no radiation other than radio waves inside a magnetic field
Mucus: ; mucous; mucoid; produced by goblet cells and x glands
Müller’s muscle: sympathetic (autonomic) muscle that retracts the eyelid tarsus and fornix; upper M.m.: from the levator aponeurosis to the tarsus and fornix; lower M.m.: within retractors
Müllers muscle: sympathetic muscle attached from the EOMs to the tarsal plates and conjunctival bursa
Muscle cone: the conical portion of the orbit described by the EOMs and the septum between them

N

Nasolacrimal duct
Non-integrated Implant: remains separate from the body tissues do not grow into the implant; example materials: glass, metal, acrylic
Non-integrated implant: does not allow tissue to grow into the implant; examples used: glass, rubber, silicone, steel, gold, silver, acrylic, and polymethylmethacrylate
Nuclear scan: an injected isotope is detected as it quickly degrades.

O

Oblique: angled
Ocular implant: spherical device placed in the orbit at surgery to replace orbit volume after removal of the eye or its contents. Usually made of acrylic PMMA Medical grade, silicone or bio-compatible material.
Ocular: pertaining to the eyeball; intraocular, extraocular
Ophthalmic: pertaining to the eye, particularly medical aspects
Ophthalmoscope: instrument used to view inside the eye; direct o.: a lighted handscope magnifier, used primarily to see the optic nerve and macula; indirect o.: a handheld lens is viewed from a lighted telescopic headset, used primarily to view the retinal fundus in 3D
Optic disc: the portion of the retina where all the nerve fibers collect to exit the eye, producing a blind spot
Optic Nerve: bundle of nerve fibers that carries impulses from the retina to be formed into images in the brain.
Ora Serrata: anterior-most part of the retina that looks like teeth
Orbicularis oculi muscle:
Orbit, orbital: pertaining to the bony containment of the eye socket
Orbital apex: the posterior part toward the brain
Orbital fat: fat contained mostly in the muscle cone
Orbital muscle: sympathetic muscle covering the inferior orbital fissure, also called o.m. of Müller, makes eye bulge out in fight/flight of dogs, etc., often absent or of little effect in humans
Orbital rim: the anterior most portion of the orbit
Orbital septum: membrane-like covering between the eyelids and the orbital rim; also describes a portion of the eyelids
Orifice: any opening

P

Palpebral: pertaining to the eyelids, usu as opposed to bulbar, which pertains to the eyeball
Peg: affixes some prostheses to the implant, transferring movement
Peritomy: circular incision to the sclera at the limbus, usu 360°
Polish: to buff out any scratches to a smooth surface
Polyethylene: one implant material that allows partial tissue ingrowth or integration
Posterior chamber: portion of the eye behind the lens and ciliary body
Posterior: toward the back
Potential space: any space currently collapsed that can be opened
Primary Surgery: surgery done immediately, usu emergent; compared with “secondary surgery” which is either delayed, elective or replacement surgery
Prognosis: overall predicted outcome of treatment
Prosthesis: any replacement for an anatomical body part, here an artificial (or “glass”) eye, usually made from acrylic plastic
Proteinaceous: containing protein, usu derived from the blood
Pulley of Chalcot: fascial connections within tenons capsule of the EOMs that redirect the vector of the muscle pull
Pupil: (black) opening at the center of the iris
Pupillary reflex: a reflection from the back of the eye

R

Radiation: any treatment for tumors utilizing any radiofrequency (RF) waves in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum, including x-rays and gamma rays
Radioactive plaque: disc of radioactive material that is sewn to the eye to treat cancer
Rectus, plural recti: “straight”, here one of four straight EOMs
Retina: light-sensitive nerve tissue lining the back of the eyeball.
Retinaculum: any syncisium of tissue holding another structure up vertically. (fr retain)
Retinoblastoma: a cancerous tumor of the retina, usually congenital

S

Scan: any test that looks into the body and produces an image.
Sclera: white outer coat of the eyeball.
Sebaceous: glands producing oily sebum; most are at the base of hairs or exiting directly onto the skin surface.
Sebum: a mixture of oil, wax, inorganic salts, fats, cholesterol, and proteins that keeps hair flexible, prevents drying, etc.
Seeding: cells breaking off from a main tumor to make new tumors
Silicone: a material once used for implants
Snare: a surgical wire garrotte used to cut the optic nerve
Sphincter: any muscle contracting to close a round orifice; in the iris, a muscle near the pupil that controls the size of the pupil
Spiral of Tillaux: describes the distance of muscles from the limbus
Strabismus: any abnormal alignment of the eyes
Sulcus: a contour depression
Superior oblique
Superior rectus
Superior sulcus deformity: recession of the upper septal eyelid, usually from volume deficiency of the orbit
Sympathetic ophthalmia: an auto immune response in the fellow eye, often due to exposure of blood to the retinal pigment.

T

Tarsus: cartilage-containing plate-shaped structures that give support to the eyelids, contains the Meibomian glands
Tear Glands: common, though inaccurate term used to include all glands that contribute to the tearfilm; Müllers, Zeiss, Moll, ; lacrimal
Tearfilm: the three-layered fluid wetting the eyeball
Tendon: the tough connection of a muscle to another structure
Tenon’s capsule, fascia: ; Anterior tenon’s: portion anterior to the EOMs; posterior tenon’s: portion posterior to insertion of the EOMs, encircling the globe and EOMs to the orbital apex
Trauma: any injury
Trichiasis: extra, erratic eyelashes

U

Ultrasound (US) scan: uses sound waves, can be seen in A-scan, B-scan or C-scan, can be assembled into 3D views.
Umbo: spot-like reflection from the fovea

V

Vitreous humor: clear gel filling the eye behind the lens

W

Wettability: the ability of a surface to accept water
Whitnall’s ligament

Z

Zeiss: glands producing sebum at the base of the eyelashes, also a nominal component of the ßtearfilm